- 25mm is the traditional scale, is best for detailed painting, but has somewhat fallen out of favour lately. We hope that these rules will inspire players to dig out their old armies and give them some exercise. This scale is especially suitable for public demonstration games, where visibility can be a problem for spectators.
- 15mm is currently the most popular scale and is still large enough for detailed painting and for players to easily recognise the types comprising their opponent’s army.
- 6mm and 2mm provide the ultimate in visual realism, but at the cost of increasing difficulty in painting and recognising troop types.
- 25mm figures: 50 paces in battle = 40mm measured on the table.
- 15mm or 6mm: 50 paces in battle = 25mm (or 1 inch) measured on the table.
- 2mm: 50 paces in battle = 20mm measured on the table.
- Superior (S): Troops recognized by their contemporaries as of significantly superior morale and/or efficiency.
- Ordinary (O): Representing the great bulk of troops of that type.
- Inferior (I): Brittle troops historically identifiable as of significantly inferior morale or efficiency.
- Fast (F): Troops who move faster and further than average but are worse protected.
- Exception (X): Troops treated as special Cases.
- Knights with bow - if (X) as Bowmen (S), otherwise as Bowmen (O).
- Cavalry – if (I) as Bowmen (I), if with handgun as Artillery (X), otherwise as Bowmen (O).
- Light Horse with bow or crossbow or Camelry with bow as Bowmen (I).
- Knights (S), (O) or (I) as Blades (S). Knights (F) as Spears (O) or Blades (O). Knights (X) as Spears (S).
- Regular Cavalry – – if (S) or (O) as Auxilia (S), if (I) as Auxilia (I).
- Light Horse as Auxilia (I).
- A double element moves as if a single element having the maximum permitted move of its slower type.
- A double element normally expends PIPs as if a single element of whichever type would require the most if alone. If, however, it moves backwards (i.e. any part of it crosses the original line of its rear edge), it expends PIPs as if 2 single elements, unless both its elements are cavalry or both are skirmishers.
- A double element which is not part of a group contacts enemy or responds to contact as if a single element.
- A double element makes outcome moves as if a single element of the front type.
- If only one element of a double element is destroyed, the double element is replaced by a single element of the other element’s type. The surviving single element remains in its original position.vii
- If he has at least 2 naval elements, a WW along one short table edge. Unless a WW is listed as compulsory for the defender’s army, he can only do so if he dices and scores 4, 5 or 6. If a WW is listed as compulsory, he can place one without dicing, but is not obliged to do so. A different non-water-feature option can be chosen if dicing is unsuccessful.x
- A river flowing from one long table edge to the other. Unless a Rv is listed as compulsory for the defender’s army, he can only do so if he dices and scores 4, 5 or 6. If a Rv is listed as compulsory, he can place one without dicing, but is not obliged to do so. A different non-water-feature option can be chosen if dicing is unsuccessful. If a river is placed, a second dice is thrown. The river must be entirely between 250p plus 50p times the score on this dice and 600p plus 100p times its score from the short table edge.xi
- A road from one central sector table edge to the other, plus 0 or 2-3 feature equivalents of entirely steep hills. Such hills can include a full or partial covering of Wd, V, O, rocky ground or brush if permitted to the defender, but the whole hill counts as DGo, and as a H(S), so does not satisfy a requirement for other types of compulsory terrain. The first compulsory road placed counts as 0 feature equivalents.
- One WW, and only if none is already present and (if the army list book allows a BUA to his army) he positions a BUA in contact with it. Unless it is compulsory, he can only include a WW in his terrain selection if he dices and scores 5 or 6. A different option can be chosen if dicing is unsuccessful.
- One river flowing from one short table edge to that opposite, or to a WW, or to an attacker-positioned river. Unless it is compulsory, he can only include a river in his terrain selection if he dices and scores 6. A different option can be chosen if dicing is unsuccessful. If dicing is successful, divide the table depth equally into four and dice again. The river cannot go outside the indicated zone: 1 - zone nearest defender, 2,3 - central zone nearer defender, 4,5 - central zone nearer invader, 6 - nearest zone to invader.
- One BUA, and only if in contact with a WW, or, if there is none, in a flank sector or placed so that a gateway or included road links with an invader-placed road. The BUA (or any incorporated hill) must be positioned in contact with the defender’s rear table edge unless he dices and scores 5 or 6. If dicing is unsuccessful he must place it in contact with his rear table edge. The BUA and any fields must all be entirely within 1 sector.
- Up to 2 external roads, and only if they link with a BUA or join/cross a previous road, or roads are compulsory.xii
- Good going [GGo], of bare gentle slopes, open fields, or of water features, bog or marsh frozen by cold weather.
- Rough going [RGo], of moderately boggy, rocky or brushy gentle slopes or lower ground or a sunken gully.
- Difficult going [DGo], of steep or wooded, vine-planted or terraced slopes, woods [Wd], orchards or olive or oasis palm groves [O], small fields enclosed by walls, hedges, irrigation channels or paddy bunds [E], vineyards [V], marsh [M], sand dunes [D], and built-up areas [BUA] unless manning perimeter fortifications.
- 0400 to 2200 in Cold if summer.
- 0500 to 1900 in Cold if spring or autumn, or in Warm or Dry if summer.
- 0800 to 1600 in Cold, Warm or Dry if winter.
- 0600 to 1800 in other climates or seasons.
- Cold applies north of the Pyrenees, Alps, Caucasus and the Central Asian Desert, to the Danube basin, Galatia, Mongolia, Tibet, Korea, China north of the Fei river, Japan and highland Peru, and to all large mountain regions.
- Warm applies to southern Europe Africa north of the Atlas, Asia Minor except Galatia, and Syria/Palestine.
- Dry applies to the Sahara, Libya, Egypt, West and East Sudans, Arabia, Persia, Mesopotamia, the Indo-Persian border, and the Central Asian Desert.
- Tropical applies to Africa south of the Sudans, India, South East Asia, China south of the Fei river, and Central and South America.
- Who are visible to or have shot at any element of their command.
- Who have been observed within or moving into concealing terrain by an element of the command and not been seen to move out again.
- Who are within fortifications.
- Further forward than 300p short of the table centre line.
- Unless naval, within 300p of a short table edge.
- Within 200p of an enemy garrisoned fortified BUA.
- Must be parallel with the battlefield edges.
- Cannot intersect or be inside another friendly command’s rectangle.
- Can be in contact with another friendly command’s rectangle. Elements of one command can be deployed in contact with elements of another friendly command.xxi
- Concealed within a wood, orchard, olive or palm grove, sand dunes or a gully.
- Hidden from the enemy deployment area by intervening hills, sand dunes, woods, orchards or olive/palm groves.
- If psiloi, hidden in these ways or in a vineyard, rocky area or marsh, or in brush.
- Any element deviates from straight ahead, unless following another element in (but not into) a 1 element wide column, or moving (1 element wide) along a road or river bank, or any element contacts enemy.
- Any irregular element, other than of light troops or a general and any troops double based with him, moves less than its full move, unless the move ends when at least one element contacts enemy, a river or impassable terrain, or a march discovers enemy within 200p.
- Any knights war wagons or elephants (other than a general and any troops double based with him) in any formation.
- Any irregulars (other than skirmishers) hordes or expendables not in a single element wide column.xxvi
- He scores a 6 on his PIP die. (If flank marching, subsequent to the 6 required for arrival).
- Enemy shoot at or move into contact with any of his troops.
- An enemy command becomes demoralised.
- Can be in any direction provided that neither front corner of its base (nor rear corner if train) ends more than the troop-type’s maximum permitted move distance from where that corner started. [See figure 1].
- Can be used to break off from enemy in contact with its front, but only if it is either at night, by naval, or the element breaking off has a greater maximum move in the terrain it ends in than the element broken off from. An element breaking off must move at least 100p directly to its own rear and end facing the clement broken off from. A break-off must not deviate from straight back, nor end in contact with new enemy. An element in contact with an enemy front edge to its flank or rear cannot break off.
- Can be used to dismount or remount troops, except mounted infantry who do so automatically. A full single element move is required for each dismounted element. If this replaces or is replaced by 2 or 3 elements, each of these must start or end in edge contact with at least one of the other. Elements using a tactical move to mount or dismount cannot start or end in edge contact with enemy.
- Can be used to embark on or disembark from naval in edge contact with a beach, quay or river bank, starting or ending respectively in edge contact with the naval element An element cannot disembark if enemy land troops ale in contact with the waters edge, in which case combat must be fought by the naval element until the enemy recoil, break-off, flee or are destroyed. It can disembark to contact enemy who are positioned away from the edge these being moved back if necessary to make room.
- Expand from a single element wide column. The front element remains stationary. Other elements move as if by single element moves. All must end facing the same direction and in both edge and corner to corner contact with another element of the original group. None can end in contact with enemy. All front rank elements must be lined up level with the original front rank element. The maximum distance that any front corner of any element can move is 50p more than its permitted tactical move distance in that terrain. [See figure 3].
- Contract into a single element wide column from a wider group. The front element of the column moves forward by up to its full tactical move distance, including any bonus for moving along a road. It can wheel. Other elements move as if by single element moves, the nearest elements failing in behind the column, the rest moving to close up any resulting gaps. No element can end further to its rear than its position prior to the formation change (but after any initial 180o turn).xxix Until the group is entirely in column, all must end facing the same direction and in both edge and corner to corner contact with another element of the original group. None can end in contact with enemy. The maximum distance that any front corner of any element can move is its normal tactical move, including any bonus for moving along a road if the front of the column is doing so. It may take more than one move for the whole group to join in the column. [See fig. 4a - 4c].
- One or more wheels, measuring the move distance of the outer front corner of each wheel in a straight line.
- An initial and/or a final 180º turn if the group is entirely of light horse, or entirely of psiloi, or entirety of regular naval, in each case measuring the move of each element from its initial front edge to its final rear edge.
- Through a gateway or leaving a temporary fortification, or entirely along a road, or across a road ford or bridge.
- Ending the move in difficult going, unless all elements are psiloi or move into edge to edge or corner to corner contact with enemy visible at the start of the move.
- Across a tricky or dangerous river, this simulating discovery and use of an unmarked ford.
- To advance directly forward towards such an element at least part of which is directly in front.
- To advance and line up directly opposite such an elements front.
- To advance so that its front edge contacts the front edge or front corner only of whichever enemy element can be so contacted by the shortest move. [Fig 2]. An element attempting contact having started opposite a joint between two enemy elements must therefore contact the enemy element it initially overlaps most.
- To follow behind an element or elements contiguous with its front in any of the above.
- To retire directly to its own initial rear without ending in edge contact with enemy.
- As a spontaneous or outcome move.
- If the enemy are skirmishers and the movers are impetuous troops and their entire move is directly forward.
- When a single element or group moves within 1 base width of enemy, one sideways shift of up to half an element width is permitted if it is necessary to line up the troops so that a move straight ahead (this bound or in a subsequent bound), without any further sideways shift, would allow at least one element to make contact with the enemy as specified in paragraph 4 below. Such a shift does not itself prevent a move from counting as entirely straight ahead. If, however, a wheel is also required to line up with the enemy, the shift can be performed before, during or after the wheel. The normal rules for crossing the enemy front are suspended during the shift unless the move ends with any element in front edge contact with an enemy flank or rear. If the move is otherwise entirely straight ahead or by a group, the shift is disregarded for measuring move distance.xxx
- Several single element or group moves can be made simultaneously to allow contact with an enemy element or group, but only if none of the moving elements or groups could contact enemy without the others moving first, and all moves can be carried out without any element or group interpenetrating another.xxxi
- It is already in contact with enemy.
- It is defending fortifications or the edge of a terrain feature.
- It is of a type that does not turn to face flank contact.
- This will position it so that a recoil would meet a friendly element it could not pass through or push back enough to fully recoil, or a flee move from combat would take it off table. This exception applies even if recoil or flee is not a possible outcome.
- There is insufficient space for it to pivot or shift. In this case, an element of skirmishers contacted by foot must still pivot or shift if sufficient space can be made for it to do so by the moving group being moved straight back to make room.
- Troops can only move into contact with enemy if a single element or at least one element of a group ends in one of the following positions.
- Front edge in full contact with an enemy element’s front edge and front corner in contact with that enemy element’s front corner.
- Front edge in at least partial contact with an enemy element’s flank edge and front corner in contact with that enemy element’s front corner. [Fig. 6.]
- Front edge in full contact with an enemy element’s rear edge and front corner in contact with that enemy element’s rear corner.
- In right-to-right or left-to-left front corner to front corner contact with an enemy element, and facing the exact opposite direction.
- In partial or complete side edge to side edge contact with an enemy element.
- In front corner to front corner and side edge to side edge contact with a friendly element whose front edge is in contact with an enemy element’s flank or rear edge as specified in the 2nd or 3rd bullet above.
- No element can move into contact with an enemy element’s rear unless it starts entirely on that side of an imaginary line prolonging the rear base edge of the enemy element. [Fig. 5].
- No element can move into contact with an enemy element’s flank unless it starts partly or entirely on that side of an imaginary line prolonging the side base edge of the enemy element, any part not on that side of the line being behind the enemy rear. [Fig. 5].xxxiii
- Normally, it cannot start or go closer to known enemy than 200p, and ends immediately on discovering previously unknown enemy within 200p. However, this distance is reduced to 50p if all of the following apply:
- The movers are entirely unmounted foot or unmounted foot plus a mounted general and any troops double based with him.
- The enemy are entirely skirmishers, or any type if not part of a group.
- The enemy total less elements than the number of elements in the moving group’s front rank (even if this is not level).
- An element can make or join in as many march moves during each bound as there are sufficient PIPs for, but cannot also make a tactical move that bound.xxxiv
- An element or group from making a spontaneous advance.
- A naval element from drifting on to a lee shore in strong winds and being shipwrecked.
- An element or group belonging to a demoralised command from fleeing in spontaneous retreat, In the case of single elements only, such a halt can include a 180° turn towards enemy.
- Irregular elements of - knights if (S), (O) or (F) (but not (X)), camelry if (S), expendables, warband, blades if (F) (but not (X) and hordes if (S).
- Any regulars or irregulars, other than train, who are aware of demoralised enemy closer than the nearest undemoralised enemy and within 600p or who would contact enemy baggage.
- They have made a tactical or march move this bound.
- They are prevented from moving this bound by a single element or group halt.
- Their front edge is already in contact with enemy, or the front edge of an enemy element is in contact with them.
- They are in a position to give rear or overlap support to friends whose front edge is already in contact with enemy.
- They belong to the command of an uncommitted unreliable ally general.
- They belong to a demoralised command.
- They would contact enemy elephants.
- Any enemy in or beyond terrain the impetuous element cannot enter and cannot by-pass by a diversion of 300p.
- If the impetuous element is mounted, any enemy in difficult going or beyond enemy fortifications.
- Enemy skirmishers unless any part of their element base is directly to the impetuous element’s front.
- It can make any shifts, inclines or pivots necessary to contact its target this bound if it cannot do so by wheeling.
- It must reduce its move by 10p if needed to avoid ending in front corner to front corner contact with friends unless its front edge contacts enemy, or it can give rear or overlap support to friends in contact with enemy.
- It can shift and/or pivot by the minimum necessary to avoid any of the following that it has contacted: difficult going, impassable terrain, fortifications it cannot cross or friends it cannot pass through. [See P. 20 and fig. 9c to 9e]. It cannot do so to avoid going it counts as rough or rivers, but can pivot to cross a river.
- • It can pivot backwards by the minimum necessary to align the direction it ends facing with that of a friendly element within an element base width which is already in edge or corner contact with enemy or which has already made a spontaneous advance this bound. [Fig. 9a and 9b].
- Its move ends when it reaches front edge and corner contact with an enemy element, or it becomes eligible to give rear or overlap support to friends in contact with enemy, or it is within 50p of mounted enemy it can shoot at.
- It moves double distance unless already within, or the move would bring it within, 200p of known enemy.
- Troops classed as Fast (F), add an extra 50p to their maximum tactical, march or fleeing move distance off-road, if either mounted, artillery or naval in good going or if other foot.
- An element in front corner to front corner or side edge to side edge contact with an enemy element at the start of its move can add 50p to its maximum distance to move into frontal contact with that enemy elements flank edge.
- Off-road moves are restricted to 100p if any element is crossing any but a paltry river, or when visibility is reduced to 100p by night and/or, unless Bedouin or Tuaregs in a day-time dust-storm, by weather.
- Mounted can pass through psiloi who are facing in the same or opposite direction.
- Psiloi can pass through any land troops who are facing in the same or opposite direction.
- Bowmen except (X) can pass through or be passed through by blades facing in the same or opposite direction.
- Infantry can pass through train in any direction.
- Boats can pass through or be passed through by galleys or ships facing the same or opposite direction.
- Any land troops can pass through (I) hordes in any direction, the hordes being destroyed as the interpenetration starts.xxxvii
- Foot elements passed through by knights, (S) camelry or expendables flee.xxxviii
- Other impetuous troops that have not yet moved this bound recoil if they can complete this. They then make a full spontaneous advance, even if halted this bound, as soon as the element passing through has completed its move.
- Other impetuous troops that have already made a tactical or march move this bound, or other non-impetuous troops, recoil if they can complete this.
- Instead of regular commands being allocated dice by the C-in-C after throwing, each throws its own PIP die.
- Any command that is currently unreliable or has twice had a PIP score of 2 or less since the visibility restricting conditions started does not move or dice again until dawn breaks and any visibility restricting weather has ceased, or any of its elements has seen enemy since the conditions started.
- Move distances are restricted as specified on P. 19.
- in close combat.
- providing rear support to an element in close combat.
- in full front edge to rear edge contact with an element in close combat.
- overlapping an enemy element which is in close combat to its front.xl
- Both ranks are bowmen, armed with same type of bow.
- Both ranks belong to the same command.
- The second rank element is in full front edge to rear edge contact with the front rank element.
- Both ranks are of the same grade, or the front rank is (X) and the rear rank is (S) or (O) mounted on the same base.
- Neither rank is in difficult going.xli
- It is in both side edge and front corner to front corner contact with the friendly element in frontal combat with the enemy element and at least the nearest part of its own front edge is free of contact with any enemy element.
- It is in side edge contact with the enemy element’s side edge, even if it is itself in contact with a friendly or enemy element to its front. Two opposing elements in contact on their side edges overlap each other. An element in side edge to side edge contact with the rear element only of a double based element does not count as an overlap on the front rank element. An element in side edge to side edge contact with a supporting element only does not count as an overlap on the front rank element.xlv
- If one of the sections is defended, the element not faced by the defending element fights as if a flank contact, except that the defending element is not destroyed if it recoils.
- If neither section is defended, the assaulting player chooses which of his elements counts as the main attacker and which the flanker.
- The flanking element does not pursue over the fortifications if the combat is won by its side, but does recoil if the combat is lost by its side.xlvi
- If expressly required by their army list to be mounted on a double element base, knights (I) fighting foot, knights, cavalry or light horse to their front or shot at except by artillery add +1 for a supporting 2nd rank of knights (I).xlix
- Spears add +1 for a supporting 2nd rank of spears, if both are the same grade and in good going, and their frontal opponents are not elephants. If fighting elephants to their front, their combat outcome is modified as specified on P.23.l
- Pikes except (X) add +1 for each supporting 2nd or 3rd rank of pikes, if all are the same grade and in good going, and their frontal opponents are not elephants. If fighting elephants to their front, their combat outcome is modified as specified on P.23.
- Foot fighting to their front against pikes except (X) deduct 1 if the pikes are supported by a 4th rank of pikes, if all ranks are pikes of the same grade and in good going.li
- Pikes (X) add +1 for each supporting 2nd or 3rd rank of pikes (X) or (I), if all are in good going, and their frontal opponents are not elephants. If fighting elephants to their front, their combat outcome is modified as specified on P.23.lii
- Warband add +1 for a supporting 2nd rank of warband.
- Auxilia (X) add +1 for each supporting 2nd or 3rd rank of auxilia (X), if the 2nd rank is of auxilia (X).
- Other auxilia in close combat against spear, pikes, blades, auxilia or bowmen to their front add +1 for a supporting 2nd rank of auxilia of the same grade.
- Bowmen in close combat against spears, pikes, blades, auxilia or bowmen to their front add +1 for a supporting 2nd rank of bowmen of the same grade, armed with the same type of bow.
- Psiloi (S) or (O) who are fighting skirmishers to their front add +1 for a supporting rank of psiloi of the same or (O) grade.liii
- They are war wagons.
- They are behind permanent fortifications and being shot at by artillery (S).
- They are behind temporary fortifications and being shot at by any artillery or in close combat with psiloi (X).
- They are behind any fortifications and in close combat with or shot at by a war wagon (S) or ship (X) tower.
- The front element is of psiloi and the nearest element behind is not.
- The front element or that behind is of war wagons, baggage or naval, or the front element is of artillery or (I) hordes.lxv
- The elements behind are separated from that in front by a fortification, or the front element drowned.
- Meets enemy (other than psiloi contacted on a side or rear edge or rear corner, who immediately flee). Unless the recoilers are psiloi, this enemy is also destroyed if contacted on a rear corner only or a rear edge by the recoiling elements rear edge, or on a rear or side edge by its rear corner only. It does not then count as having been destroyed in close combat.
- Meets friends it cannot pass through and cannot push back sufficiently to complete its recoil move.
- Meets terrain it cannot cross. (Landing troops can re-embark. A boat recoiling on a river follows its curves.).
- Meets a PF parapet or TF, except from inside an enemy TF or unopposed at a gateway.
- Enemy (other than psiloi contacted on a side or rear edge or rear corner, who immediately flee). Unless the pushed back element is psiloi, this enemy is also destroyed if contacted on a rear corner only or a rear edge by the pushed back element's edge, or on a rear or side edge by its corner only. It does not then count as having been destroyed in close combat.
- Friends it cannot pass through and cannot push back sufficiently for the recoiling element to complete its recoil move.
- Terrain it cannot cross. (Landing troops can re-embark. A boat pushed back on a river follows its curves.).
- A PF parapet or TF, except from inside an enemy TF or unopposed at a gateway.
- An element fleeing as a result of shooting or close combat [See p. 23] first recoils one base depth. It then moves directly to its own rear, making a 180° turn to do so.
- An element fleeing from an enemy flank march [See p. 15] moves directly away from the flank table edge if a land element, towards its side base edge if a naval element, making an initial turn if necessary.
- An element fleeing after being passed through by spontaneously advancing friends [See P. 20] makes an initial 180° turn unless the impetuous friends passed through within 90° of from front to rear.
- An element fleeing from a recoiling enemy or elephant element [See above] moves in the same direction as the recoiling element, making an initial turn if necessary.
- An element fleeing in spontaneous retreat as a result of demoralisation [See P. 25] moves towards the nearest point on its army’s base table edge, or its edge of arrival if it successfully flank marched, except that an element of naval landing troops moves towards the nearest unladen friendly naval element capable of embarking it if any exist. In each case it makes an initial turn if necessary.
- An element of skirmishers fleeing as a result of an enemy press forward move flees directly away from (perpendicularly to) the enemy front, making an initial turn if necessary.lxix
- It is in contact with an enemy front edge to its flank or rear after a frontal opponent breaks off.
- It fought only as an overlap or flank contact.
- It was foot fighting skirmishers, pikes or blades vs mounted, or knights vs psiloi, and chooses not to pursue.
- It was defending a fortification or river bank, took a tower, or would enter a river or reach a waterway.
- Its pursuit would take any part of its base off table.
- Each element of war wagons (I) counts as 3 element equivalents.
- Each element of psiloi, hordes except (I), boats (F) or irregular auxilia (I) counts as half an element equivalent.
- Expendables or hordes (I) count as 0 element equivalents.lxxiv
- A dismounted element counts as the mounted element equivalents it was exchanged for. Its mounts do not count.
- An element of naval landing troops counts as its original element equivalents whether embarked, disembarked or shipwrecked. Its vessels do not count. An element of ships (I) baggage counts as 1 baggage element.
- Baggage does not count towards the original element equivalents of a command or army, but baggage losses are added to total army losses when calculating final defeat and tie breaks only. Each element counts as 2 elements if destroyed in close combat, 1 if lost any other way, 0 if demoralised but not yet lost.lxxv
- If any invaders have passed through the centre point of a BUA add 4 elements to the defenders total army losses.
- At the end of any bound by either side at least one third of its original element equivalents have been lost.
- Its general is lost and its next PIP die score is not greater than the cumulative total of element equivalents lost by the command. This represents immediate panic after loss of a general, so only applies once per command.
- The strengths and weaknesses of your own forces.
- The strengths and weaknesses of the enemy.
- The terrain.
- The enemy’s possible deployments and plans.
Each element has at least part of an edge in contact with at least a part of an edge of the other. Elements in contact only corner-to-corner are not in edge contact.
An element counts as giving rear support if it fulfils the criteria for rear support given on P.22, and the front rank element’s frontal opponents are of a type against which a relevant rear support factor, modified combat outcome or mitigating rear support factor is listed. It does not count as giving rear support against other types.
Perpendicularly forwards from the element’s front edge.
Perpendicularly backwards from the element’s rear edge.
The rectangular area representing the battlefield.
Within 1 base width
At or closer than 1 element base width distance.
Within x paces
At or closer than x paces distance.
- One WW, and only if not already present and he positions a BUA in contact with it. Unless it is compulsory, he can only include a WW in his terrain selection if he dices and scores 5 or 6.
- One river, and only if it flows from one short table edge to that opposite, or to a WW, or to an attacker-positioned river. Divide the table depth into four and dice. The river cannot go outside the indicated zone: 1 - zone nearest defender, 2,3 - central zone nearer defender, 4,5 - central zone nearer invader, 6 - nearest zone to invader.
- One BUA, and only if in contact with a WW, or, if there is none, in a flank sector or placed so that a gateway or included road links with an invader-placed road. The BUA and any fields must all be entirely within 1 sector.
- Up to 2 external roads, and only if they link with a BUA or join/cross a previous road, or roads are compulsory.
- It is defending fortifications or the edge of a terrain feature, or is of a type that does not turn to face flank contact.
- This will position it so that a recoil would meet a friendly element it could not pass through or push back enough to fully recoil, or a flee move from combat would take it off table, even if recoil or flee is not a possible outcome. There is insufficient space for it to pivot or shift.”
- Elements initiating close combat must move into edge to edge and corner to corner contact with an enemy element and, except as specified above, cannot exceed their normal move to do so. [Fig 8a & 8b. Note also Fig. 7].
- An element moving to contact an enemy elements flank must line up with one of its front base corner touching the enemy elements front base corner. [Fig 6.] An element cannot move to contact an enemy element’s flank or rear unless it starts entirely on that side of a line prolonging that base edge of the enemy element. [Fig 5].”
- It cannot start or go closer to known enemy than 200p and ends immediately on discovering enemy within 200p.
- An element can make or join in as many march moves during each bound as there are sufficient PIPs for, but cannot also make a tactical move that bound.”
- “If expressly permitted by their army list, spears, pikes, blades or auxilia who are fighting warband or mounted troops except knights (X) to their front or attacking fortifications or war wagons add +1 if supported by a single 2nd or 3rd rank of psiloi aimed with bows, or a single 2nd rank of psiloi armed with crossbows or handguns.
- If expressly permitted by their army list, cavalry who are fighting cavalry or knights to their front add +1 for a supporting 2nd rank of psiloi (S) or (I).”
- Thus cavalry get rear support (on a losing score) against all troop types. This improves all cavalry including Byzantine DBEs.
- Cv (O) and (I) get a bonus vs Kn - they should still lose, but not quite as quickly. Cv (S) do not get this bonus against Kn, because otherwise Cv (S) would beat Kn (F) which is not the historical outcome – this is rationalized on the basis that Cv (S) have already reached the peak of cavalry ability to resist Kn and further depth does not significantly improve their chances.
- For the sake of simplicity, Cv get less of a rear support bonus vs Cv and LH than in 3.0.